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Biceps Ruptures - Yorkshire Shoulder Clinic

distal biceps tendon rupture represents about 10% of biceps ruptures. Demographics. ruptures tend to occur in the dominant elbow (86%) of men (93%) in their 40s. Anatomic location. complete distal biceps avulsion. partial distal biceps avulsion. partial distal biceps tendon tears occur primarily on the radial side of the tuberosity footprint The biceps can also tear near the elbow, although this is less common. A tear near the elbow will cause a gap in the front of the elbow. Your doctor will check your arm for damage to this area. In addition, rotator cuff injuries, impingement, and tendinitis are some conditions that may accompany a biceps tendon tear Proximal Biceps Tendon Rupture. - See: - Biceps Tendonitis. - SLAP Lesions. - Discussion: - this tendon may have some role as a depressor of humeral head, preventing superior migration of humeral head; - approx 50% of all ruptures occur thru the tendon of the long head; - rupture is usually is usually more or less transverse and is located. Proximal Biceps Rupture. The biceps brachii is a muscle located on the front of the upper arm. It has two attachments at the shoulder. The short head attaches to the corocoid process of the scapula or shoulder blade and the long head attaches to the top of the glenoid or shoulder socket of the scapula. Its function is to flex the elbow and. Triceps Rupture. Triceps Ruptures are rare injuries to the elbow extensor mechanism that most commonly occurs as a result of a sudden forceful elbow contraction in weightlifters or older males with underlying systemic illness. Diagnosis can be made clinically with the inability to extend the elbow against resistance

Distal Biceps Avulsion - Shoulder & Elbow - Orthobullet

Distal Biceps Rupture | eOrthopod

pain elicited in biceps groove when patient attempts to actively supinate against examiner resistance with elbow flexed to 90-degrees and forearm pronated popeye deformity. indicates rupture ; Imaging: Ultrasound. can show thickened tendon within bicipital groove; MRI . can show thickening and tenosynovitis of proximal biceps tendo Summary. Biceps tendon tears are injuries to the biceps muscle that result in the complete or partial severing of the tendon from the bone. The tendon of the long head is most commonly affected, usually as a result of trivial trauma in patients with a pre-existing, degenerative joint condition. The rupture is rarely painful and usually does not cause any significant loss of function The biceps brachii is a unique muscle with 2 proximal tendons and a single distal tendon. Although these tendons are part of the same muscle, they have significantly different functions. It is hypothesized that the long head of the biceps acts as a pain generator in the shoulder, though the biomecha The proximal portion of the long head of the biceps tendon is extrasynovial but intra-articular.5 The tendon travels obliquely inside the shoulder joint, across the humeral head anteriorly, and. Distal Biceps Avulsion. partial distal biceps tendon tears occur primarily on the radial side of the tuberosity footprint. distal biceps tendon rupture represents about 10% of biceps ruptures. ruptures tend to occur in the dominant elbow (86%) of men (93%) in their 40s. excessive eccentric tension as the arm is forced from a flexed to an.

Biceps tendon injuries include a spectrum of disorders ranging from mild tendinopathy to complete tendon rupture. Rupture occurs most frequently at the long head of the proximal tendon, but may occur in the distal tendon. Coexistent injuries at the biceps tendon origin and superior glenoid labrum constitute a variety of disorders known as SLAP. Biceps Tendon Tear at the Elbow. The biceps muscle is located in the front of your upper arm. It is attached to the bones of the shoulder and elbow by tendons — strong cords of fibrous tissue that attach muscles to bones. Tears of the biceps tendon at the elbow are uncommon. They are most often caused by a sudden injury and tend to result in. Proximal biceps tendon rupture orthobullets Keyword Found . Keyword-suggest-tool.com DA: 28 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 87. A proximal biceps tendon rupture is an injury to the biceps tendon at the shoulder joint; This injury type is the most common type of biceps tendon injury; It is most common in patients over 60 years of age and often causes minimal.

Introduction. A distal biceps rupture occurs when the tendon attaching the biceps muscle to the elbow is torn from the bone. This injury occurs mainly in middle-aged men during heavy work or lifting. A distal biceps rupture is rare compared to ruptures where the top of the biceps connects at the shoulder Proximal Bicep tendon tears can be related to a shoulder injury. The biceps are the muscles located on the front of the upper arm. It is a strong muscle in the upper arm region that helps you to rotate your forearm, lift things and twist your elbow. The biceps tendons attach the biceps muscle to bones in both the shoulder and elbow The proximal biceps tendon rupture is more common than distal biceps tendon rupture. Pain is often sharp and excruciating pain. Audible Pop-Patient hears and feels pop when tendon is separated or ruptured. Bicep Muscle Cramp-Use of upper arm causes cramping of biceps muscle. Muscle cramp causes bulging of the muscles Pectoralis Major Rupture. a rare acute injury caused by avulsion of the pectoralis major tendon and usually seen in weightlifters. patients usually present with shoulder pain and weakness. when presenting acutely treatment is usually surgical repair. This is an AAOS Self Assessment Exam (SAE) question Localised tenderness specifically over the biceps groove and proximal biceps; Speeds test, which has an 80% sensitivity ; Yergasons test, which has a 50% sensitivity ; AERS test (abduction, external rotation, supination) A LHB rupture is denoted by a typical ' popeye sign ' with a dropped biceps muscle. The retracted muscle may be fixed or mobile

tendon.2,6,7 This unique anatomy of the proximal biceps places it at high risk for abra-sive wear and injury. Furthermore, its close proximity to the anterior and superior rotator cuff predisposes the LHBT to injury in the setting of rotator cuff tears. a Division of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU-Langon Biceps tendon rupture. The biceps brachii muscle is involved in supination and flexion of the forearm. The biceps muscle has two proximal tendon insertions onto the scapula— the long head and the short head. The long head originates at the supraglenoid tubercle and extends over the humeral head into the intertubercular groove of the humerus Conservative management of long head of biceps rupture take 4-6 weeks on average. Oedema management: RICE regime. The treatment takes 4-6 weeks 2-3 times in a week. It consists of mobilization and flexibility exercises to improve the shoulder ROM. After that, there are also strength and stretching exercises

Biceps Tendon Tear at the Shoulder - OrthoInfo - AAO

Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon will typically result in a reverse Popeye sign due to retraction of the biceps muscle belly into the mid-aspect of the upper arm. A palpable defect is often appreciated as well as a firm nodule due to the abnormal tendon that has retracted from its normal insertion point on the bone In this episode, we review the topic of Deltoid Rupture from the Shoulder & Elbow section. --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/orthobullets/messag Proximal biceps rupture is an uncommon injury in a competitive athlete. There is an association between proximal biceps rupture and rotator cuff tendinitis. Rupture of the proximal biceps as a consequence of competitive arm wrestling and subsequent mini-open repair has not been reported previously in the literature

addition, the authors recommend nonoperative treatment for isolated biceps femoris ruptures as little functional disability results from this injury. Consequently, they recommended prompt surgery to accomplish a primary repair of the tendons to its origin. In summary, complete rupture of the proximal hamstrings is an uncommon injur (2) Repair for acute 3-tendon rupture (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) with retraction >= 2cm. (3) Surgery for young (<50y) patients with 2 tendon avulsion and retraction >= 2cm. Review more high-yield concepts about Hamstring Injuries on the most recent episode of The Orthobullets Podcast Introduction. A biceps rupture involves a complete tear of the main tendon that attaches the top of the biceps muscle to the shoulder. It happens most often in middle-aged people and is usually due to years of wear and tear on the shoulder. A torn biceps in younger athletes sometimes occurs during weightlifting or from actions that cause a sudden load on the arm, such as hard fall with the arm. Non-operative Proximal Biceps Rupture Treatment. When the proximal biceps tendon ruptures, the immediate treatment should consist of the application of ice to the upper arm, the use of an arm sling to support the arm and elbow, and the administration of an anti-inflammatory medication (if your medical history allows their use)

(OBQ13.101) Figure A is the MR image of the left shoulder of an active 47-year-old painter who has been experiencing shoulder pain for 9 months. In addition to the finding shown in Figure A, MRI examination of the intra-articular portion of the biceps tendon shows fraying greater than 50% Biceps tendon injuries include a spectrum of disorders ranging from mild tendinopathy to complete tendon rupture. Rupture occurs most frequently at the long head of the proximal tendon, but may occur in the distal tendon. Coexistent injuries at the biceps tendon origin and superior glenoid labrum constitute a variety of disorder known as SLAP.

Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture: part one. - Discussion: - distal biceps may rupture off the radial tuberosity; - presents w/ painful swollen elbow usually in a 50-60 yo active male, most often in the dominant side (uncommon in women); - incidence of distal biceps rupture is 1.2 per 100,000 persons per year The proximal fibula is the insertion point for the biceps femoris posterolaterally, the soleus posteriorly, and the peroneus longus and extensor digitorum longus anteiorly. Additionally, lateral collateral ligament of the knee originates from the lateral epicondlye of the femur to insert on the superior portion of the fibular head and is the. A biceps tendon injury is a tear or rupture of connective tissue that connects the biceps muscle of the upper arm to bones at either the shoulder (proximal tendon) or elbow (distal tendon). Proximal tears are more common than distal tears and usually are the the result of chronic overuse or an acute injury, such as a direct blow to the shoulder.

Distal Biceps Avulsion - Shoulder & Elbow - Orthobullets

Proximal Biceps Tendon Rupture : Wheeless' Textbook of

  1. Mortality/morbidity. Overall consequences of biceps rupture may differ among various demographic groups. The major impairment resulting from proximal biceps rupture involves limitations due to pain during the acute phase, but impairment ultimately relates to a decrease in strength during shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, and forearm supination
  2. imum 4 years.
  3. 2. LHB rupture without a rotator cuff tear: This type of rupture usually occurs in weightlifters in the gym attempting to lift a heavy weight. When the bicep injury occurs, pain is instant and you might hear a pop sound. Bicep injury bruising will follow soon after. This results in a 'popeye' deformity and weakness of the biceps

Orthobullets. Yesterday at 2:04 PM ·. Pectoralis major tendon ruptures (PMTR), once a rare injury, have recently been rising in incidence, likely due to an increasingly active population with a growing interest in weight-training and use of anabolic steroids. This injury occurs almost exclusively in males. The pectoralis major is composed of. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture in Orthopedic Injuries. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture is almost exclusively a male injury and occurs in a younger age group compared to the proximal biceps rupture. It is important to distinguish these injuries as their management and outcomes are different Tendonitis may lead to partial tears in your proximal biceps tendon —and that causes pain when you use the muscle. Partial tears can progress to a complete rupture of the tendon, causing it to.

Bicep tendon rupture

A gastrocnemius rupture can be diagnosed clinically and involves a proximal calf injury after a sudden push off associated with sprinting or jumping. Patients describe symptoms to include a tearing sensation or pop with pain in the calf region. Patients endorse difficulty bearing weight and prefer to walk on their toes to minimize discomfort A complete avulsion tear of the proximal hamstrings occurs when the hamstrings are peeled off the ischium of the pelvis. These tears generally occur in people over the age of 40 due to a traumatic and sudden injury such as during a sprint or from a fall. A partial, or incomplete tear of the tendon means that there is minimal tearing or. complete avulsion with grade I to III ligamentous injury or/and with peroneal nerve injury. These injuries can manage with various treatment options from conservative to fixation of avulsed fragment by various Key Words: Fibular head avulsion, Fracture proximal fibula, Ligament injury knee, avulsion fracture, suture anchor. 1. Introductio Hamstring Muscle Injuries. Hamstring muscle injuries — such as a pulled hamstring — occur frequently in athletes. They are especially common in athletes who participate in sports that require sprinting, such as track, soccer, and basketball. A pulled hamstring or strain is an injury to one or more of the muscles at the back of the thigh Proximal means near or close to and distal means away or farther from the point of reference. Thus the upper arm in humans is proximal and the hand is distal. What Is A Biceps Tendon Rupture And How Is It Fixed 1 Anatomical Positions Proximal Third Tibia Fracture Trauma Orthobullets Language Of Anatomy Wakefield Planes Of The Body Ak

injury, only surpassed by knee sprains.1 Numerous studies have shown that hamstring strains are one of the most common injuries in sprinting sports, soccer, rugby and Australian rules football.1-12 Hamstring strains primarily occur at the proximal musculotendon junction.13 Proximal musculotendon strain injuries have been shown to be treate Introduction: Specific term for inferior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint trapped underneath the coracoid and glenoid; Epidemiology. incidence. very rare, only 0.5% of all shoulder dislocations; Pathophysiology. pathoanatomy. typically a high-energy injur How does a rupture of the long head of biceps occur? A rupture of the long head of biceps can occur when the biceps muscle is contracted strongly.Strong contraction of the muscle can overstress the biceps tendon and cause it to break or rupture.This commonly occurs in middle-aged or older people who have a history of biceps tendinopathy.This causes an area of weakness within the biceps tendon. alignment of the proximal humerus in the setting of displaced fractures. The long head of the biceps travels within the intertubercular groove of the anterior humeral shaft, extends toward the rotator interval, and in-serts onto the supraglenoid tubercle and superior labrum.10 The tendon is an extrasynovial structure in the gle Proximal Biceps Tendonitis Rotator Cuff Tears 2019 ABOS Breakdown Max % Qs Topics Covered From Orthobullets in Study Plan ABOS 2019 Sports Recon Recertification Exam Blueprint. Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD) Shoulder Imaging Distal Biceps Avulsion Triceps Rupture Radius/ulna 1-2% 2% 3 Fracture Radius and Ulnar Shaft Fracture

The junction between the tendons of the hamstrings and the ischial tuberosity is the area affected by high hamstring tendinopathy. The tendon's thickness, fibrousness and poor blood supply are the causes of difficult healing.. The muscles contain a higher proportion of type 2 muscle fibres than the other muscles of the lower extremity; suggesting high intrinsic force generation Neuropathy/nerve injury Os acromiale Scapular dyskinesia Shoulder joint 12-16% Max% Qs 4% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 2% 16% 6 3 3 3 3 3 1.5 3 24 Sports MOC 90-Da Study Plan Topics Covered From Orthobullets in Study Plan Statistic Definitions Level of Evidence Clinical Trial Design Neck Injuries in Athletes Proximal Biceps Tendonitis Rotator Cuff. In the majority of studies, the biceps femoris was the most commonly injured hamstring. Injury to the semimembranosis was less common, followed by the semitendinosus . However, these numbers differ in other studies and are complicated by the fact that more than one muscle often is injured . Proximal injuries including tendon avulsion (based on.

Proximal Biceps Rupture Rothman Orthopaedic Institut

Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture is almost exclusively a male injury and occurs in a younger age group compared to the Proximal Biceps Rupture. It is important to distinguish these injuries as their management and outcomes are different. The mechanism and physical exam findings of Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture, such as the Hook Test, are key in this. Dr. Ebraheim's animated educational video describing the Hook Test. Distal Biceps Tendon RuptureThe hook test is a test used to diagnose distal biceps tendo.. Rotator cuff tear Supra-/infraspinatus tear Deltoid split Axillary nerve, deltoid detachment Subscapularis tear Deltopectoral Axillary nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, anterior humeral circumflex artery Middle ORIF of humeral fracture Proximal to mid third fracture Anterolateral Divides the brachialis, lateral antebrachial cutaneous, and radial. Partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon exhibits features similar to that of complete disruption, including acute antecubital pain, weakness of elbow flexion, and forearm supination, and differs only in the fact that the biceps tendon is still palpable in the partial rupture. There are 2 etiolog

The Hook Test is used to diagnose a distal biceps tendon rupture, avulsion, or a tear. The biceps tendon inserts into the proximal radius at the radial tuberosity at the elbow. When the biceps tendon ruptures, it will cause pain at the elbow. It is a single traumatic event with eccentric force on the flexed elbow Distal Biceps Tear . Description: Distal Biceps tears encompass a spectrum of injury which range from partial to complete tears. It generally occurs in middle aged men and complete tears are the most common presentation 1,2.It is generally caused by unopposed or excessive eccentric force as the arm is extended 1,4. Biceps tears are classified as acute or chronic tears

Distal biceps tendon tear is a condition in which the distal biceps tendon (i.e., the tendon that connects the biceps muscle to the bone of the elbow) is ruptured or torn. There are two types of distal biceps tendon tears: partial and complete. If the tendon has completely severed, then surgery may be the patient's only option Biceps femoris avulsion symptoms. Symptoms consist of a sudden sharp pain at the back of the knee. This injury is known to be particularly painful so continuing to play on is not usually an option. Swelling will appear at the point of injury where the tendon attaches to the bone at the outside back of the knee The biceps femoris muscle has been shown to be a strong flexor and an important dynamic stabiliser of the knee, and injury to its distal part may result in weakness and instability of the knee, especially in athletes. 15,16,17 Therefore, it would seem reasonable to advocate restoration of normal anatomy to minimise loss of function and strength ↑ 12.0 12.1 Brockett CL, Morgan DL, Proske U. Predicting hamstring strain injury in elite athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36 (3): 379-87 ↑ Abebe E, Moorman C, Garrett Jr W.Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries: injury mechanism, diagnosis and disease course. Oper Tech Sports Med 2009; 17 (4): 205- Recurrent or chronic dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint can be associated with a wide range of symptoms, most commonly instability of the lateral knee and clicking or popping, which often can be mistaken for lateral injury of the meniscus. 1,3,5,20,26-28 In addition, the diagnosis may be confused with other, better described and.

Pectoralis Major Tear/Rupture. Description: Tears and/or ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle are rare, with only 400 noted cases in the literature (1).They are becoming increasingly more common and almost exclusively occur in otherwise healthy males between the ages of 20 and 40 years old Summary Box 12.1. Proximal ulna fractures account for 4-7% of paediatric elbow fractures. They comprise olecranon and coronoid process fractures. Several classification systems exist ( Table 1 ), of which the functional classification based on the mechanism of injury is practical and helpful in planning treatment Fig. 5.1 Water skiing mechanism of injury. As the boat accelerates, the upper torso is forcefully pulled forward, causing subsequent rapid eccentric hip flexion and knee extension against the resistance of the water and ski Risk Factors for Proximal Hamstring Injury Multiple risk factors have been reported for proximal hamstring injuries. In the National Footbal

Triceps Rupture - Shoulder & Elbow - Orthobullet

Introduction. A proximal hamstring tear is a rare, poorly understood entity , whose diagnosis is not always immediate. Only 12% of hamstring traumas are proximal tears .Sallay et al. showed that functional results were better after surgical repair than after conservative treatment. Cohen and Bradley recommended surgery in case of a tear of more than 2 cm or a complete tear In complete tear of the tendon, the lacertus fibrosus is overloaded and may become tendinopathic causing specific tenderness during biceps muscle activity against resistance at the site of its insertion on the proximal volar side of the flexor muscle compartment. Operative tendon repair within two weeks shows good long-term results Non-operative Biceps Tendon Rupture Treatment Some cramping of the retracted muscle and perhaps a slight bulge in the arm are usually the most common symptoms. The reason why there is minimal function loss following a proximal biceps tendon rupture is that there are two tendinous muscle attachments of the biceps at the shoulder joint

Proximal versus distal biceps tendon ruptures: When to

A biceps tendon tear, or rupture, occurs when the long head of the biceps partially tears or ruptures from its attachment to the top of the socket.It is commonly associated with other painful shoulder conditions such as rotator cuff disease or osteoarthritis. In most cases, this condition is managed without surgery with no long-term effects to shoulder function Rupture of the biceps tendon can occur proximally (at the shoulder) or distally (at the elbow). Ruptures commonly occur when there is an unexpected force applied to the bicep muscle such as attempting to catch something or someone when they fall. Most ruptures occur when the elbow is in a flexed position. Some people may feel or hear a pop. To measure muscular strength after rupture of the long head of the biceps brachii, we evaluated ten patients treated conservatively and five surgically with the Cybex II testing machine, and compared the values with the data on 20 healthy individuals. In the conservative group, the strength of elbow Distal biceps rupture most commonly affects the dominant arm of men from age 40 to 60. The mechanism of distal biceps tendon rupture is forced extension of the elbow held in 90 degrees flexion with the forearm supinated. Distal biceps tendon ruptures most commonly present after a single traumatic event Biceps Tendinitis. Biceps tendinitis is an inflammation or irritation of the upper biceps tendon. Also called the long head of the biceps tendon, this strong, cord-like structure connects the biceps muscle to the bones in the shoulder. Pain in the front of the shoulder and weakness are common symptoms of biceps tendinitis

Proximal Humerus Fractures - Trauma - Orthobullet

Popeye's sign in patient with biceps tendon rupture. Snap or pop is described. Flexion of elbow elicits pain. May produce mid-arm ball but difficult in obese patients. Proximal. Swelling and tenderness over bicipital groove. Loss of strength is minimal due to intact short head inserting at corocoid process. Distal covering (sheath). The biceps tendon is one of the anchor points of the biceps muscle, which is important for bending the elbow and rotating the wrist. It also plays a role in shoulder function. Proximal biceps tendon tendinitis may be a grade 1 or 2 strain of the tendon. A grade 1 strain is a mild strain. There is a slight pul Proximal Biceps Tendon Repair Shoulder Brace: wear for daily activities & sleeping for 4 weeks Range of motion Week 1-2 • Shoulder PROM flexion approx. 90° initially then gradually increase during first 2 weeks • Shoulder PROM ER/IR @ 45° ABD to tolerance (caution w/ excessiv Giovanni Battista Monteggia (1762-1815). Unstable fracture-dislocations of the forearm (Monteggia and Galeazzi lesions) Monteggia lesions in children and adults: an analysis of etiology and long-term results of treatment. Removal of forearm plates. A review of the complications

Hamstring Injuries - Knee & Sports - Orthobullet

Biceps Tenodesis. Biceps tenodesis describes the surgical procedure that is usually performed for the treatment of biceps tendonitis of the shoulder. The biceps tendon passes through the shoulder joint and attaches to the labrum. When this attachment is torn, it is a so-called SLAP tear of the shoulder. Individuals with biceps tendon problems. muscle.7 The injury most frequently occurs at the proximal or distal musculotendinous junction, but several case reports of origin and insertional ruptures of the adductor longus exist in the literature.8-14 A case of a distal adductor magnus rupture has been reported.15 Satisfactory outcomes have been achieved with bot Biceps Rupture . Stiff Shoulder . TOP TEN TRAUMATIC • Shoulder Contusion • Fracture of the Clavicle • Fracture of the Humerus • AC Separation- (SC) •Proximal • Will involve the Growth Plate as the weakest link of proximal humerus. •Initial treatment-- Sling, Ice. Ortho

How to: Biceps Tendon Ultrasound Exam - YouTubeBiceps Tendon RuptureBiceps Tendon Tear at the Elbow (Distal Biceps RuptureBiceps Rupture

New to Orthobullets? Join for free. ortho BULLETS. Rehabilitation of a surgically repaired rupture of the distal biceps tendon in an active middle aged male: a case report. Proximal femoral nails anti-rotation versus dynamic hip screws for treatment of stable intertrochanteric femur fractures: an outcome analyses with a minimum 4 years. - occur most often in association w/ proximal tibial fractures, esp w/ split compression, bicondylar, and subcondlylar fractures; - look for injury to peroneal nerve, anterior tibial artery, biceps tendon, & lateral collateral ligament; - mech is usually a varus force; - Avulsion Off the Fibular Styloid injury. !e delay of diagnosing the injury can make the treatment much more dicult. However, even in a case of late diagnosis, it is still often possible to get good results after proper treatment. Anatomy of hamstrings and the injury!e hamstring muscle group includes semitendino-sus and semimembranosus medially and biceps femo Biceps tenodesis is a surgical procedure used to reduce pain in the shoulder and surrounding area. It is an option when pain is caused by problems with the biceps tendon in the arm. In this. Bicipital groove: This is where the long tendon of the biceps muscle is located. The biceps has 2 tendons, a long and a short tendon, hence the bi in biceps. Anatomical and Surgical necks: These are two additional areas that can fracture in a proximal humerus fracture The biceps is a muscle on the front part of the upper arm. Biceps tendons upper tendon of the long outer biceps brachii head. The tendon also arises from the superior aspect of the glenoid labrum slightly. The tendons that connect the biceps muscle to the shoulder joint in two places are called the proximal biceps tendons